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ISME Website History Standing Committee IHME Homepage CHINA - Key References  China – Socio-political constructions of school music by Wai-Chung Ho   This book chapter is a key reference for the historical development of music education in China. It was published as Chapter 13 in The Origins and Foundations of Music Education: Cross-Cultural Historical Studies of Music in Compulsory Schooling by Gordon Cox and Robin Stevens.  This book was fIrst published in hardcopy edition in 2010, then in paperback edition in 2011 as part of the Continuum Studies in Educational Research - Series Editor: Anthony Haynes -  by Continuum International Publishing Group, London.     For details of these two formats, click on the appropriate icon below to go to the following links:         Hardcopy version -         Paperback version -         eBook version -  online retilers for Bloomsbury (Continuum) eBook publications include Amazon Kindle, Google Play, Kobo and Apple.  The following list of references utilised by the authors in the writing of this chapter may be a useful source of information for scholars and researchers interested in the history of music education in China.   Bohr, P. R. (2000), ‘Famine in China and the mission: Timothy Richard as relief administrator and advocate of national reform 1876-1884’, International Bulletin of Missionary Research, 24, 75-80. Cai, Y. P. (1983), Miexue Wenxuan  (The Selected Works on Aesthetics by Cai Yuanpei).  Beijing: Beijing Daxus Chubanshe. Cai, Y. P. (1987), Jiaoyu Lunji (A Collection of Education Treatises by Cai Yuanpei). Hunan: Jiaoya Chubanshe. Cao, L. (1996), Putong Xuexiao Yinle Jiaoyuxue (Education Method for Teaching General Schools) (2nd edition). Shanghai: Shanghai Xiaoyu Chubanshe. Cao, L. and He, G. (2000), Yinyue Xueke Jiaoyuxue (The Educational Theory of Music Teaching). Beijing: Capital Normal University. Chen, X. M. (2002), Acting the Right Part: Political Theater and Popular Drama in Contemporary China. Honolulu: University of Hawaii Press. China Education Daily, 12 July, 2001. China Education and Research Network (2001), Teacher Education in China (III): Pre-service Training of Primary and Secondary School Teachers. Available online at: CNN News (1999), ‘Reformer with an iron fist: Deng Xiaoping (1904-1997)’, Available online at: Dual, P. A. and Cheng, L. L. (1990), ‘Education and projected manpower needs of Mainland China’, in B. Lin and L. Fan (eds), Education in Mainland China: Review and Evaluation. Taipei: Institute of International Relations, National Chengchi University, pp. 254-271. Feng, Z. P. (2008), ‘The textual research about the institution of Royal Court Music in the Tang Dynasty and the function of its music education’, Kashi Shifanxueyuan Xuebao (Journal of Kashgar Teachers College), 29(2), 45-48. Gild, G. (1998), ‘Dreams of renewal inspired by Japan and the West: Early 20th century reforms in Chinese music’, Chime, 12-13, 116-123. Gong, H. Y. (2004), ‘Western classical music in China from Matteo Ricci to Li Delun’, Musicology in China, 4, 138-140. Guo, S. J. (2005), Yishu Jiaoyulun (Discussion on Arts Education) (3rd edition).  Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publisher. Ho, W. C. (2003), ‘Westernization and social transformation in Chinese music education, 1895-1949’, History of Education, 32(3), 289-301. Ho, W. C. (2004), ‘A comparative study of music education in Shanghai and  Taipei: westernisation and nationalization’, Compare, 34(2), 231-249. Ho, W. C. (2006), ‘Social change and nationalism in China’s popular songs’, Social History, 31(4), 435-453. Ho, W. C. (2007), ‘Students’ experiences with and preferences for using information technology in music learning in Shanghai's secondary schools’, British Journal of Educational Technology, 38(4), 699-714. Huang, R. (1988),  China, A Macro History. Armonk, NY: M.E. Sharpe. Hung, C. T. (1996), ‘The politics of songs: myths and symbols in the Chinese  Communist war music, 1937-1949’, Modern Asian Studies, 30(4), Special Issue: War in modern China, 901-929.  Jin, Y. Q. (1989), ‘Zhongdeng shifan jiaoyu zhuanye kecheng gaige jiyi’ (Urgent comments on the reform of educational studies in the normal school curriculum), Jiaoyu Yanjiu, 5, 44-46. Jin, Y. W. (2003), Chuzhong Yinyue Xin Kecheng Jiaoxuefa (Early Secondary School New Music Curriculum Teaching Methods). Beijing: Higher Education Publisher.  Kau, M. Y. M. and Marsh, S. H. (eds), (1993), China in the Era of Deng Xiaoping: A Decade of Reform. Armonk: M. E. Sharpe.  Kwok, T. J. (1987), Zheng: A Chinese Zither and Its Music. Michigan: University Microfilms International. Lau, D.C. (1979), Confucius: The Analects. London: Penguin. Law, W. W. (1999), ‘New rules of the game in education in the People’s Republic of China: education laws and regulations’, (Guest Editor’s Introduction), Chinese Education and Society, 32(3), pp. 3-8. Law, W. W. (2007), ‘Legislation and educational changes: the struggle for social justice and quality in China’s compulsory schooling’, Education and Law, 19(3/4), 177-199. Law, W. W. and  Ho, W. C. (2009), ‘A review of values education in China’s school music education: from nationalism to globalization’, Journal of Curriculum Studies, 41(4), 501-520 Legge, J. (1971), Confucius: Confucian Analects: The Great Learning & the Doctrine of the Mean. New York: Dover. Liang, M. Y. (1985), Music of the Billion: An Introduction to Chinese Musical Culture. New York: Heinrichshofen Edition. Lindorff, J. (2004), ‘Missionaries, keyboards and musical exchange in the Ming and Qing Courts’, Early Music, 32(3), 403-414. Liu, C. C. (ed.) (1990), History of New Music in China 1946-1976: Collected Essays, Hong Kong: The University of Hong Kong. Liu, C. C. (1998), Zhongguo Xin Yinyue Shilun (Historical Record of New China Music). Volume 1. Taipei: Yaowen Shiye Co. Lu, M. D. (ed) (1999), Xiandai Zhongxiaoxue Yishu Xiaoyue Lun (Education in Modern Arts Education in Primary and Secondary Schools). Nanjing: Jiangsu Educational Publisher. Luo, C. K. (1991), ‘Double cultural contact: diffusion and reformation of Japanese school songs in China’, in Y. Tokumaru, M. Ohmiya, M. Kanazawa, O. Yamaguti, T. Tukitani, A. Takamatu, M. Shimosako (eds), Tradition and Its Future in Music: Report of SIMS 1990. Osaka, Tokyo: Mita Press, pp. 11-14 Ma, D. (2002), Ershi Shiji Zhongguo Xueshao Yinyue Jiaoyue (Chinese School Music Education of the 20th Century). Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publisher. Ma, D. (2005), Yinyue Xiaoyu Kexue Yanjiu Fangfa (The Scientific Research Method in Music Education). Shanghai: Shanghai Music Chubanshe. Manuel, P. (1988), Popular Music of the Non-Western World: An Introductory Survey. New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press. Mao, Y. R. (1991), ‘Music under Mao, its background and aftermath’, Asian Music, XXII (2),  97-125. Ministry of Education, The People’s Republic of China (2001), Quanri Zhi Yiwu Jiaoyu: Yinyue Kecheng Biaozhun (Shiyan Gao)  (Full-time Voluntary Education: Standard of Music Curriculum (Experimental Version). Beijing: Beijing Normal University Publisher. Rao, K. V. S. (1985), ‘Education in China, Maoist and Dengist Models’, China Report 21, 415-425. Reed, G. G. (1995), ‘Moral/political education in the People's Republic of China: learning through role models’, Journal of Moral Education, 24(2), 99-111. Roberts, J. A. G. (2006), A History of China (2nd edition). New York: Palgrave Macmillan. Scott, A. C. (1963), Literature & the Arts in Twentieth Century China. Garden City, N.Y.: Doubleday. Shen, J. P. (1994), ‘Educational policy in the People's Republic of China: a political influence perspective’, Journal of Education Policy, 9(1), 1-13. Song, J. (2007), ‘How does a music teacher face the education of the new century’,  Journal of Xichang College, 21(2), 101-103, 110. Southcott, J. E. (2004), ‘The first tonic sol-fa missionary: Reverend Robert Toy in Madagascar’, Research Studies in Music Education, 23, 3-17. Southcott, J. E. and Lee, A. H. C. (2008), ‘Missionaries and tonic sol-fa music pedagogy in 19th-century China’, International Journal of Music Education, 26(3), 213-228. Stevens, R. S. (2007), ‘Tonic sol-fa in Asia-Pacific countries – the missionary legacy’, Asia-Pacific Journal for Arts Education, 5(1), 52-76. Teaching Resources Editing Group for High School Teachers (2001),  Zhongxue Yinyue Jiaoxuelun Jiaocheng  (Theory of Secondary School Music Education) 2nd ed. Beijing: People’s Music Publishing Company. Thomas, K.T. (ed.) (1981), Confucius. Oxford: Oxford University Press. Wang, J. J. (2008), ‘On the music teaching and the reforms of music teaching in the teachers’ universities’, Journal of Hebei Normal University, (Educational Science Edition), 10(3), 86-89. Wang, Y. K. (2003), Quanri Zhi Yiwu Jiaoyu: Yishu Kecheng Biaozhun Jiaoshi Duben (Full-time Voluntary Education: Standard of Arts Curriculum, Teacher’s Copy). Wu Han: Hua Chung Normal University Chubanshe. Wang, Y. W. (2004), ‘The ethical power of music: Ancient Greek and Chinese thoughts’,   Journal of Aesthetic Education, 38(1), 89-104.  Wiant, B. (1966), The Music of China. Hong Kong: Chung Chi College, the Chinese University of Hong Kong. Wong, I. K.F. (1984), ‘Geming gequ: songs for the education of the masses’, in B. S. McDougall (ed), Popular Chinese Literature and Performing. London: University of California Press. pp. 112- 143. Xiu, H. L. (1998), ‘Modern music education and Cai Yuanpei’s views on Chinese and western culture’, Musical Performance, 21(2), 15-17. Xu, D. (1998), ‘Reports on the seventh national music education symposium’, People’s Music, December,  2-6. Yao, S. Y. (1989), ‘On the construction and development of China schools’ musical education’, People Music, (Renmin Yinyue), 10, 24-27. Yao, S. Y. (2000), Zhongguo Dangdai Xuexiao Xinyue Jiaoyu Wenxuan  (Selected Papers for School Music Education in Contemporary China). Shanghai: Shanghai Educational Publisher. Zhang, D. K., Tan, T. J. and Chang, Y. H. (2004), Zhongxiao Xue Inyue Xin Kecheng Jiaoxue Fa  (The New Teaching Method for the Primary and Secondary School Music Education). Beijing: Capital Normal University Press.  Zhang, J. R. (1990), ‘The development and investigation of contemporary China music education’, in C. C. Liu (ed), History of New Music in China 1946-1976: Collected Essays. Hong Kong: University of Hong Kong, pp.439-456. Zhang, L. Z. (2000), ‘Cai Yuanpei (1868-1940)’, Prospects, XXIII(1/2), 147-157. Zhang, Q. (1991), ‘The history and future of the reception of western music by China in the 20th Century’, in Y. Tokumaru, M. Ohmiya, M. Kanazawa, O. Yamaguti, T. Tukitani, A. Takamatu, and M. Shimosako (eds), Tradition and Its Future in Music: Report of SIMS 1990 Osaka. Tokyo: Mita Press, pp.407-412. Zheng, L. and Jin, Y. M. (2004), Music Education: New Vision. Beijing: Higher Education Press. Zhu, Z. P. and Liao, Y. W. (2003), Quanri Zhi Yiwu Jiaoyu: Yinyue Kecheng Biaozhun Jiaoshi Duben (Full-time Voluntary Education: Standard of Music Curriculum Teacher’s Copy). Wu Han: Hua Chung Normal University Chubanshe. Zhuang, Z. L. (2005), Xuetang Chunqiu (Schools & Colleges in Old Shanghai).  Shanghai: Shanghai Cultural Publishing House.   Protestant Missionaries and School Music Education in Late Qing China: The Case of Julia B. Mateer by Hong-yu Gong   This journal article is relates to the historical development of music education in China. It was published in the Chime Journal (Journal of the European Foundation for Chinese Music Research), Issues 18-19, 2013, pp. 101-134.   Free access to the full text is available on the Chime Journal Back Issues Dropbox via the following URL or simply click on the icon to go the Dropbox page:  Other relevant articles by Hong-yu Gong Gong, Hong-yu. (2018). Embracing Western Music via Japan: Chinese Intellectuals, Japan, and the Beginnings of Modern Music Education in China. Journal of Music in China (Vol. Vol. 8, No. 1).  Gong, Hong-yu. (2020). Hao Luyi ruogan shishi kaobian (Louise Strong Hammond in China, 1913-1945). Yinyue wenhua yanjiu (Studies in Musical Culture) (Vol. 3).  Gong, Hong-yu. (2017). Musical teaching texts in Chinese preserved at the Bodleian's Library, Oxford University). Yinyue tansuo (Explorations in Music) (Vol. No. 4).  Gong, H-Y. (2017). Timothy and Mary Richard, Chinese music, and the adaptation of Tonic Sol-Fa method in Qing China. Journal of Music in China (Vol. 7(2)).  Gong, H. (2015). Musical Education at the Dengzhou Boys' School and the Work of Julia B. Mateer. Journal of Music in China (Vol. 5(1)).  Gong, Hong-yu (2013). Protestant Missionaries and School Music Education in Late Qing China. CHIME - Journal of European Foundation for Chinese Music Research, ISSN 0926-7263 (Vol. 18/19).  Gong, H. (2012). Joseph Edkins (1823-1905) and the Education of People with Blindness in Late Qing China. Yinyue yanjiu (Vol. No. 2).  Gong, H. (2012). Enabling the Disabled: Missionaries and their efforts to educate the Chinese blind. Journal of the Central Conservatory of Music (Vol. No. 1).  Gong, H. (2012). John Fryer and the Introduction of Tonic Sol-fa in China. Journal of the Nanjing Arts Institute (Vol. 3).  Gong, H. (2010). "Japan, School Songs and the Making of A New National Citizenry in Late Qing China". Constructing China's Nationhood-Music and Transmission in East Asia, University of Hong Kong, April 2010.  Gong, H. (2009). "Du Jiade de yuelishu xilie yu xiyang yueli zhi dongchuan": Carstairs Douglass and the Introduction of Music Pedagogy in Late Qing China. Yinyue yanjiu (Music Research), ISSN0512-7939 (Vol. 1 Spring).  Gong, H. (2007). "Jidujiao chuanjiaoshi yu zhongguo xuexiao yinyue jiaoyu zhi kaichuang: Xuexiao yinyue de zhidu hua" (Missionaries and the beginnings if modern music teaching in Chinese schools: The institutionalisation of music teaching). Yinyue Yanjiu (Music Research), ISSN0512-7939 (Vol. 125)  Gong, H. (2016). “Music to Teach and Transform: Kang Youwei, Liang Qichao and the Beginnings of Modern Music Teaching in China”, Journal of Music in China, Vol.6. No. 1 (Spring 2026), 75-98. ISME Website History Standing Committee IHME Homepage Copyright © 2014 History Standing Committee, International Society for Music Education (ISME)